Serbia treats the 352 km long border between Kosovo and rest of Serbia as an "administrative line"; it is under shared control of Kosovo border police and Serbian police forces, and there are 11 crossing points.) while the easternmost tip of Serbia extends into the Wallachian Plain.
The terrain of central part of the country, with the region of Šumadija at its heart, consists chiefly of hills traversed by the rivers. Dinaric Alps stretch in the west and the southwest following the flow of the rivers Drina and Ibar.
In the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the region's first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory.One of the climatic features of Serbia is Košava, a cold and very squally southeastern wind which starts in the Carpathian Mountains and follows the Danube northwest through the Iron Gate where it gains a jet effect and continues to Belgrade and can spread as far south as Niš.The average annual air temperature for the period 1961–1990 for the area with an altitude of up to 300 m (984 ft) is 10.9 °C (51.6 °F).Following the Slavic migrations to the Balkans from the 6th century onwards, Serbs established several states in the early Middle Ages.The Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by Rome and the Byzantine Empire in 1217; it reached its peak in 1346 as a relatively short-lived Serbian Empire.
Serbia is landlocked and borders Hungary to the north; Romania and Bulgaria to the east; Macedonia to the south; and Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro to the southwest; it also claims a border with Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo.