Possibly a volcanic eruption was the source of the catastrophe (see Minoan eruption).
On the other hand, gradual deforestation may have led to materials shortages in manufacturing and shipping.
Possible association of this event with the Biblical deluge.
Suggested date for an asteroid or comet impact occurring between Africa and Antarctica, around the time of a solar eclipse on May 10, based on an analysis of flood stories.
Sea levels rose dramatically (and are continuing to do so), land that was depressed by glaciers began lifting up again, forests and deserts expanded, and the climate gradually became more modern.
In the process of warming up, the planet saw several "cold snaps" and "warm snaps", such as the Older Dryas and the Holocene climatic optimum, as well as heavier precipitation.
Tehenu of the Sahara attempt to enter into Egypt, and there is evidence of a Nile drought in the pyramid of Unas.
Beginning of a severe centennial-scale drought in northern Africa, southwestern Asia and midcontinental North America, which very likely caused the collapse of the Old Kingdom in Egypt as well as the Akkadian Empire in Mesopotamia.
This ends the Jemdet Nasr period and ushers in the Early Dynastic Period of Mesopotamia cultures of the area.
It's possible this process pushed people in the area into migrating to the region of the Nile in the east, thereby laying the groundwork for the rise of Egyptian civilization. The hallmarks of Ancient Egypt (art, architecture, religion) all formed during this period.
This is widely assumed to be the time and place of the first writing system, the Egyptian hieroglyphs (date is disputed, some claim they were used as far back as 3200 BC, while others believe they weren't invented until the 28th century BC).
Possibly causing the Burckle crater and Fenambosy Chevron.
Sahara becomes fully desiccated, and conditions become largely identical to those of today.